Python is a powerful programming language that is widely used in the scientific community for mathematics and computation. With its simplicity, readability, and flexibility, Python is an excellent choice for performing mathematical operations and analyzing data. One of the main advantages of using Python for mathematics is its extensive library of numerical and scientific computing tools. These libraries provide a range of functions and tools that make it easier to perform complex calculations and analysis, as well as automate repetitive tasks.

Some examples of popular libraries that are useful for working with mathematics in Python include:


1. The Math Module

Python's built-in math module is a useful tool for performing a wide range of mathematical operations in your Python programs. This module contains a variety of functions for performing mathematical calculations, including trigonometric functions, logarithmic functions, and support for complex numbers.

The math module is useful for a wide range of applications, from simple calculations to more advanced mathematical operations. It is a useful tool to have in your Python toolkit, whether you are a researcher, data scientist, or simply someone who needs to perform mathematical operations on a regular basis. Though it is limited in terms of the functionalities it provides, it is the top choice on this list because it is already integrated with Python and can be easily imported and used (no need for installing). Example:

import math

math.sqrt(25)   # square root


2. NumPy

NumPy is a powerful library for numerical computing in Python. It provides support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices of numerical data, as well as a wide range of functions to perform mathematical operations on these data structures. NumPy is widely used in the scientific community and is an essential tool for many scientific and engineering applications. 

One of the main advantages of NumPy is its ability to efficiently manipulate large arrays and matrices of numerical data. NumPy provides functions for creating arrays, reshaping and slicing arrays, and performing element-wise operations on arrays. It also includes functions for performing linear algebra operations, such as matrix multiplication and solving linear systems. 

NumPy also integrates well with other scientific libraries in Python, such as SciPy and pandas. This allows you to easily combine the capabilities of these libraries to perform more advanced operations and analysis. It is an essential tool for numerical computing in Python and is often used in fields such as data analysis, numerical computation, machine learning, and visualization. 

You can install numpy by running this command in your terminal:

pip install numpy

Check out the numpy documentation for more on how to use it.


3. SymPy

SymPy is a powerful Python library for symbolic mathematics. It allows you to perform a wide range of mathematical operations, including algebraic manipulation, calculus, and equation solving, using symbolic rather than numerical techniques. It is particularly useful for students and researchers in mathematics and science, as it allows you to work with mathematical concepts in a more intuitive and exact way. 

It provides an interface for using the Maxima CAS on the command line and is useful in a wide range of fields, including polynomials, calculus, matrices, geometry, physics, plotting, combinatorics, statistics, and cryptography. In addition to its extensive capabilities for symbolic mathematics, SymPy is also designed to integrate well with other scientific computing packages, providing fast arrays and matrices for a variety of applications.

You can install sympy by running this command in your terminal:

pip install sympy


1. SymPy Documentation
2. SymPy Tutorial


4. Pandas

One of the most popular uses of Python in mathematics is data analysis. The pandas library provides a powerful set of tools for working with and analyzing tabular data, including functions for importing, cleaning, and manipulating data, as well as support for statistical analysis and visualization.

Pandas is a Python library that provides fast, flexible, and expressive data structures designed to make working with relational and numeric tables both easy and intuitive. It is one of the most popular libraries for data manipulation and data analysis in Python. 

The goal of the pandas project is to provide a high-performance, easy-to-use toolset for working with structured (tabular, multidimensional, potentially heterogeneous) and time-series data sets. Thus, it forms a useful package in the toolkit of a mathematician or statistician.




SciPy is a comprehensive Python library that is widely used in the scientific community for scientific and engineering applications. It is built on top of the NumPy library and provides a wide range of functions and tools for optimizing performance, performing complex calculations, and analyzing data.

One of the main goals of SciPy is to provide a powerful and flexible package that is accessible to users at all levels of expertise, while still maintaining efficiency. It includes routines for manipulating arrays, matrices, and other kinds of multidimensional data; performing linear algebra operations; working with probability distributions, statistics, and random number generators; generating graphical displays; and carrying out many other mathematical operations.


6.  MatplotLib

Matplotlib is an open-source library for creating visualizations of data in Python. It is designed to work well with the NumPy library, which is a powerful extension of Python for numerical mathematics. It allows users to create a wide range of static, animated, and interactive visualizations in Python. With Matplotlib, you can create line plots, scatter plots, bar plots, error bars, bar plots, histograms, bar charts, pie charts, box plots, and many other types of visualizations. It also provides a variety of options for customizing and styling these plots, such as changing colors, fonts, and markers.

Matplotlib is a powerful tool for visualizing and understanding data, and it is widely used in the scientific Python ecosystem for tasks such as data analysis and data exploration. It is also often used in conjunction with other popular libraries such as NumPy and Pandas for data manipulation and analysis.


7. Scikit Learn

Scikit-learn is a powerful library in Python that is designed for machine learning and data analysis. It is built on top of other popular libraries such as NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib, which provide a range of fundamental mathematical tools for machine learning tasks such as linear algebra, analytic geometry, matrix decompositions, vector calculus, optimization, probability, and statistics.

Scikit-learn provides a solid foundation for machine learning and data mining, and it is widely used in both research and production environments. It contains a range of algorithms and tools that are commonly used in machine learning, such as support vector machines, decision trees, and k-means clustering. It also has a simple and consistent API, which makes it easy to use and understand. Overall, Scikit-learn is a valuable resource for anyone interested in machine learning and data analysis in Python.


8. Statsmodel

It's an open-source python module that provides a comprehensive set of tools for statistical analysis of data sets. Statsmodels provides classes and tools for the estimation of statistical models, such as linear regression, generalized linear models, nonlinear least squares and maximum likelihood. Statsmodel has features that will appeal to both beginners and experienced users alike and prove to be best when it comes to statistical computing. Check out the documentation for more.

Run this command to install

pip install statsmodel


9. Dask

Dask is a Python package that provides flexible, efficient and easy-to-use parallel computing. If you want to perform some kind of computational task on a subset of data across multiple computers or CPUs, Dask will provide the tools to do so. It works with different types of distributed systems, allows the user to express parallelism as a task dependency graph, and provides tools to load data into a cluster or process it without a cluster. 

It is developed in coordination with other python projects like NumPy, pandas, and scikit-learn.


10. Theano

Theano was a Python library that allows you to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays. Theano features an easy-to-use interface for defining functions, allowing them to be efficiently compiled and optimized, and also offers many common mathematical functions to build more complicated calculations.
Much of the power of Theano comes from its ability to compute on arrays in both CPU and GPU modes. It has support for nearly all data types found in Numpy, including support for converting other datatypes into Numpy arrays. Though further improvements to this library have been halted, it remains a popular and efficient choice for a lot of developers who work with multi-dimensional arrays.

Run this command to install Theano:

pip install theano


11. Patsy

Patsy is a python package for developing statistical models(usually linear models) and building design matrices. This project is intended to be the standard interface for describing Python statistical models.


Overall, Python is a versatile and powerful language that is well-suited for a wide range of mathematical and computational tasks. Its extensive libraries and built-in functions make it an excellent choice for performing complex calculations, analyzing data, and visualizing results. Whether you are a researcher, a data scientist, or just someone who needs to perform mathematical operations, Python is a great tool to have in your toolkit.